So..........after many years of just chucking 2 packets of US-05 into the primary and having activity within ~24hrs, I think I may have just been schooled in the use of bottom fermenting yeast... I have only fermented 3 brews w/ W-34/70 so far and they have all been with a starter. Figuring, "others seem to get away with it", for the 4th brew I got 2 sachets of "fresh" dried W-34/70, and after checking it was still active w/ some sugar + water, just dumped it in. 24hrs later.......nothing! Airlock hasn't even started to move Thankfully I still have (had) a jar full of harvested yeast from the last brew... Is it pretty much always a "must" to use a starter with bottom fermenting yeast and/or "normal" to have to wait well over 24 hrs for activity, or have I missed something!?