Tyramine Prevention in Brewing

Discussion in 'General Brewing Discussions' started by Daniel Parshley, Jan 25, 2020.

  1. Daniel Parshley

    Daniel Parshley Active Member

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    Does anyone have information about preventing or reducing tyramine production during brewing? My understanding is tyramine is produced by Lactobacillis brevis and perhaps some other bacterium. Is this an unavoidable contaminant in brewing beer or the result of bad sanitation? Tyramine is also found in aged cheese and fermented foods, which also are great with beer. This is bad news for those sensitive to tyramine (also known as "cheese headache").
     
  2. Meatwad

    Meatwad Member

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    Pasteurization is the only somewhat-reliable way to mitigate tyramine. However even if the beer is pasteurized and you have dirty draft lines then the bacterium would be allowed to grow, potentially producing tyramine.

    So, to answer your question: no, not really.
     
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  3. Daniel Parshley

    Daniel Parshley Active Member

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    Thank you! I have looked for tyramine test strips to check levels in my brew but did not find any online. Is there a way to measure short of gas chromatography (GC) or NIMS? Meanwhile, I keep up the vigilant sanitizing. No sick or off-flavor batches so far. Sorry for geeking out. Retired from research/science.
     
  4. BarbarianBrewer

    BarbarianBrewer Well-Known Member

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    Considering the career you retired from I think we should (and will) be asking you these sciency questions! ;)
     
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  5. Trialben

    Trialben Well-Known Member

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    Honestly I didn't even know about it:) will be googling it now though.
     
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  6. Trialben

    Trialben Well-Known Member

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  7. Daniel Parshley

    Daniel Parshley Active Member

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    I have read a bunch about tyramine since it is implicated in triggering heart palpitations and headaches. As the article notes, the range of histamine was broad and was less in well fermented beer. Maybe the same for tyramine but I have not seen any articles confirming this is the case. I'll continue to be on the hunt for ways to reduce tyramine in my brew.
     
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  8. Daniel Parshley

    Daniel Parshley Active Member

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    I found another Peer Reviewed Journal article about Tyramine and beer brewing.
    See: https://jfoodprotection.org/doi/pdf/10.4315/0362-028X-60.7.831
    Basically, it is what we knew and sanitation is critical and contamination allows the stuff we don't want to flourish. Here are my take-away from the article.

    "The role of Pediococcus spp. in the production of tyramine was studied. Strains of these microorganisms were isolated from industrial beer fermentations where high tyramine formation occurred. It has been verified that Pediococcus spp. are able to form tyramine during beer fermentation, and the quantity of tyramine produced depends on the degree of contamination."

    A lot of other good discussions in the article about other bacteria, and bottom vs. top fermentation.

    Thank you to all who engaged me in this discussion.
     
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  9. Trialben

    Trialben Well-Known Member

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    So i wonder if some I'm sure their Iambic style or Farmhouse Style Wild / spontaneous fermented beers must have bucket loads of thyramine as some of These beers are purposely inoculated with pedioccocus ?
     
  10. Mark Farrall

    Mark Farrall Well-Known Member

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    It may be strain dependent for the pedio. I've had a bunch of beers with pedio and haven't noticed any change in headaches (though it was hardly controlled conditions).

    What's the standard levels in beer and the range of levels for people's reactions?

    If you're worried and have some you don't want to drink, I'll do some experiments for you.
     
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  11. Ruskin Brewery

    Ruskin Brewery New Member

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    My last sour (using a commercial culture) definitely had a bucket-load of histamine or tyramine. After one bottle I felt like I was wearing Klingon make-up. And I'm not sensitive. Previous sours were below some threshold, I guess. I have not heard of it being a concern with regular ale and lager strains.
     
  12. Hawkbox

    Hawkbox Well-Known Member

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    I've never heard of it, but like any infection you'd need to clear the whole system.
     
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  13. Nosybear

    Nosybear Well-Known Member

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    Never heard of it either. Replace what you can, pedio is a difficult infection to get rid of.
     
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  14. Trialben

    Trialben Well-Known Member

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    Yeah neither did I Of course :p but did you read that sciency link I posted looks like it's more common than you'd think. For me I've got more than this infectious bug to worry about!

    Heck sometimes I'm tempted just to cover the fermentor with a cloth and let them wild bugs have their way with the wort lol!
     
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  15. Hawkbox

    Hawkbox Well-Known Member

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    Reading is for nerds!
     

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