I'm going to jump straight into lagers, going to do a simpler SMaSH IPL to start with. Have a few questions; 3 gal boil -> 2.25 gal kettle size 5 lbs Weyereman Pils (should get me above 6% ABV) 1oz Mittelfruh at 15 1oz Mittelfruh at 5 2oz Mittelfruh WP for 15 (10% utilization) 2oz Mittelfruh Dry Hop Total IBUs: 43 Pitching S-23 Questions: Does this mash target water look ok? The profile I want is based on a midwest IPA I like. Target... Ca: 50, Mg: 5, Na: 20, Cl: 50, SO4: 130 Or, should I go with really really soft water? What mash pH should I target? With an IPA I like to target 5.4, but I know a lot of lagers are mashed more around 5.2. For yeast, do I need to build up 1 pack of S-23 on a starter? I always feel more comfortable making a starter. and when I build a 1 liter starter, it gets my fermenter size to 2.5 gallons, yielding 8 liters bottled. I know that dry yeast doesn't need a starter, just a good rehydration. But I also know that lagers need a lot of yeast and a good amount of oxygen starting out.